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Sunday, September 6

  1. page 1. Meaningful Learning edited ... Electronic version of textbook McGill course website: Concordia co…
    Electronic version of textbook
    McGill course website:
    Concordia course materials on First Class
    Links will be added here by Winter 15 Concordia & McGill classes.shortly Fall 2015
    Notes/Comments: Coming Soon !
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    7:32 am
  2. page home edited ... Pub. Date: 2012 Format: Paper This wiki is created by Concordia (EDUC 301) and McGill (EDPT…
    Pub. Date: 2012
    Format: Paper
    This wiki is created by Concordia (EDUC 301) and McGill (EDPT 200) University education students. This wiki will listlists the websites mentionnedmentioned in the
    the new edition to come out in 2015-2016.edition.
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Sunday, January 11

  1. page Assessing (10) edited Chapter 10: Assessing Meaningful Learning and Teaching with Technologies Assessing Meaningful Lea…
    Chapter 10: Assessing Meaningful Learning and Teaching with Technologies
    Assessing Meaningful Learning: Authentic and Performance Assessment
    We must use authentic assessments.
    Performance assessment refers to the process of assessing a students skills by asking the student to perform tasks that require those skills.
    Technology Based Assessment
    Assessment is the process of gathering data and analysing it. This chapter discusses how to use technology for higher order learning.
    Assessing Performance with Technology-Based Rubrics
    A rubric is a code to govern action. So it is used to score and evaluate. Rubrics are used to avoid confusion with marking it is an easy way to show why you got a grade. They suggest that teachers and students should make them together.
    Rubrics and Meaningful Learning
    Rubrics are the most commonly used term when discussing evaluation. They take the form of a scale or a set of scales. It proves a means for systematically assessing the degree that certain criteria are demonstrated in the product of process.
    Heuristics for Developing an Effective Rubric
    There are a few steps when creating a rubric.
    1. Define the topic of the rubric.
    2. Make a list of unidimentional elements (these elements can't be divided - they must be focused)
    3. a) define the element
    b) define the scale for each element
    c) define the meanings of each scale into clear objectives that will help the students improve performance.
    Technology Based Rubric Tools
    There are two basic categories for creating rubrics
    1) Rubric bank - These offer already created rubrics, and they are fast to make. The downside is that they may not match exactly what you are teaching, so you really need to find a rubric that fits your learning outcome perfectly. The best rubrics will state the outcomes they wish to assess.
    2) Rubric generation tools - These are a better way to create a rubric, because they are more tailored to the class. The teacher inputs the information and the generator puts it together in the perfect rubric format.
    Characteristics of a Good Rubric
    1) The inclusion of all important elements
    2) Elements are unidimentional
    3) Ratings are distinct, comprehensive, and descriptive
    4) Communication is an important tool and should be clear for both students and parents
    5) It provides rich information about performance by avoiding the temptation to create a summary score
    A Rubric for Assessing the Effectiveness of a Rubric
    A rubric is effective if it helps the learners focus on what they need to focus on.
    Three tips:
    1) Make the rubric with the learners
    2) Encourage them to use it guide their learning process
    3) Encourage learners to explain the rubric to their peers and parents
    Assessing Growth over Time with Electronic Portfolios
    It is becoming more common that teachers ask students to create digital artifacts for their learning. It is a way to represent a body of work that addresses defined learning outcomes. E-portfolios are a collection of digitized artifacts which represent the accomplishments of an individual or a group of learners. There are three types of portfolios working, standard based, and external evaluation portfolios.
    Why Use Them?
    Easy access for improving - by both the teacher and the students
    It can be done individually or in groups
    The teachers can annotate the work through the classes
    It is important to self reflect at the end on the work
    The students are proud of the work they have accomplished
    {Screen Shot 2012-11-21 at 8.24.03 AM.png}
    Benefits of using e-portfolios
    1)They are able to modify easily
    2)Searchable, transportable
    3)Great for education
    4)The learning outcomes are limitless
    How e-portfolios can be implemented
    1) They can be over any type of duration - short or long
    2) They can integrate both the work of students and teachers into the same portfolio
    3) They provide a structured and organized way for teachers to set limits and standards for students
    In general, e-portfolios are encouraging for students:
    1) They offer simply guidelines that have "limitless" learning outcomes
    2) Students can "take pride" in their works and have choices about what to include/not include
    E-portfolio Tasks
    1) Need to look at the purpose of the portfolio, the goals, the assignment, the standards, etc.
    2) The organizational structure is imperative for the reader and the student
    3) Organization is crucial and it is important to note what is appropriate, etc.
    Sorts of synthesizing documentation or reflection required from students in the portfolio
    An e portfolio is much more than a simple compilation of digital items, it is meant to represent what has been learned. In some cases, students may need to include a reflection, which can help improve a student’s future performance. It is also important that students consider assessment criteria before beginning their portfolio task.
    What technology do I need to implement e-portfolios?
    One can either develop an e portfolio by using HTML editors or the simple commonly available tools, or by using portfolio specific software which are much more complex. Reviews are available for the many systems and choice of system will depend on the resources at your disposal.
    Clicker Assessment Tools
    1) Clickers are being used in elementary-through college level classes to support assessment and promote student engagement via interactive question and response activities.
    2) You use them with your class by distributing them to your students to allow them to respond to questions – not by raising their hands but by selecting their answer choice through one of the clicker buttons.
    3) The computer easily tabulates, analyses and can display the results.
    4) Teachers are able to identify their responses, but their peers cannot. This allows for students to feel comfortable when answering.
    Ways to Use Clickers
    1) Use them as a quick pre-assessment at the beginning of a class or unit. You can use them to get a more accurate picture of what misconceptions students have about certain things and directly address them.
    2) Use them to gauge whether you are getting your points across and the class is internalizing what the teacher is saying.
    3) Use them for simple logistic tasks such as taking attendance or conducting a quick poll on student preferences.
    4) Assess conceptual knowledge and other higher order learning outcomes.
    Effects of using clickers
    1) Using the clicker can even the playing field allowing all students to respond to the posed questions.
    2) Students who don’t normally actively participate may be reticent for fear of getting a wrong answer. By displaying the class distribution of responses such learners can see they are not alone and teachers can reinforce this with their comments.
    3) Use clickers to provide a learner-centered, active component in a class with a large number of students.
    4) In the case of clickers it allows all students to respond and the teachers to keep track of responses and trends.
    {Screen Shot 2012-11-21 at 8.32.17 AM.png}
    Clicker "How-To's" and Technologies
    The teacher displays a question on the screen
    The students then enter their response
    The teacher can see when all of the responses have been entered and can display the results if they choose, usually in the form of a graph or bar chart.
    If you are thinking of buying a clicker system these are some new features to consider:
    Two-way receivers: Traditionally the clickers are only transmitting the answers. Now there are newer systems where the clickers can also receive the response that their answer has been entered.
    Confidence Levels: There are now clickers where students can enter both their answer and how sure they are about the answer. This is to see how much students are just guessing at the answer.
    Seamless interfacing between Presenter and clicker software: Most presenters are using Powerpoint, so clicker companies are working to integrate the clicker results into presenter software like Powerpoint.
    {Screen Shot 2012-11-21 at 8.32.40 AM.png}
    Clicker Closing Comments
    For Clickers to be used effectively they need to be engaging to students. Teachers must prepare the class for their use, for example in the case of younger children it could be set up as a game. Clickers should not be used an evaluation device, but instead used to see if the students understand the material. Also it is difficult to write effective questions for the clicker, so teacher should be prepared to put some time and effort into it.
    Assessing Learning with Technology Based Tests, Surveys, and Assessment Items
    In the last decade there has been an increase in testing and preparing for test. Looking at Table 10.1 below we can see types of online assessment organized from most interactive for students to least interactive. On the bottom of the scale are computer scored tests, which are not very interactive for students since they just passively look at the information and choose a response. This type of testing does not support the student-centered learning promoted in this book. The test item repositories are online sites that provide questions from previous years standardized tests. They allow teachers to prepare students to take these test. Other items on this list are featured below.
    {Screen Shot 2012-12-02 at 11.18.00 AM.png} {Screen Shot 2012-12-02 at 11.16.24 AM.png}
    Online Environments with Embedded Assessments
    Online assessment encourages interactive and authentic learning activities.
    Assessment is part of the learning process.
    Calipers: Are a form of assessment for mid and high school studies. Teachers can review the records obtained. Evaluation is based on student comprehension of the animation segment, in the form of questions. Formative assessments are provided in the form of feedback, while summative assessments receive no feedback.
    Formative assessments are a positive way to help both students and teachers.
    DIAGNOSER: Is a tool used for instruction, assessment, and feedback. It is used for the study of physics. The style of this program allows for students to be able to think and predict the outcome of new concepts.
    {Screen Shot 2012-12-02 at 11.30.17 AM.png}
    {Screen Shot 2012-11-21 at 8.33.50 AM.png}
    Internet-Based Tests (Cont.)
    Other Online testing tools are more sophisticated in the ways they assess knowledge and in the ways they provide feedback.
    The "ASSISTments" site ( can be used by teachers to access content created by other users. The site also supports "building, coaching, or tutoring to go along with the items that one creates."
    This allows students to work on an assignment while also being able to find the assistance most commonly needed for these tasks by accessing already-created content.
    Online Test and Survey Builders (page 268)
    Types of features:
    Price-based such as number of questions/responses/participants.
    Fee-based tools allowing unlimited instruments, customizing options, data analysis, randomizing answers
    Online testing:
    Response choices can assess complex knowledge skills as people have the ability to structure forced response items
    Examples of free tools allowing teachers to gather data on student progress and to adapt consequently.
    Also gather information about parents that can impact student activities:
    Survey monkey
    Poorly constructed items
    Online nature of the tool
    To conclude, assessment is an integral part of instruction, as it determines whether or not the goals of education are being met. Assessment affects decisions about; grades, placement, advancement, instructional needs, curriculum, and, in some cases, funding. The previous chapter shows how technology can be used to aid in assessment. We can use that to assess meaningful learning and to provide a window of what learners are really learning. This will allow us to help students learn in a more positive way!

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  2. page 9. Visualizing edited Chapter 9: Visualizing with Technologies -Vision is our most complex sensory system; the largest …
    Chapter 9: Visualizing with Technologies
    -Vision is our most complex sensory system; the largest amount and variety of data is received by humans via eyes, and visual images are powerful mediators of meaning-making.
    -Tools that help us visualize ideas can help us learn difficult concepts
    -There are two types of learners: visualizers and verbalizers. We will explore the technologies for visual learners in this chapter.
    Visualization tools have two major uses:
    1. Interpretive
    -help learners view and manipulate visuals to extract meaning
    -illustrations help clarify difficult or abstract concepts
    2. Expressive
    -help learners visually convey meaning to communicate a set of beliefs.
    Drawing/Paint Programs
    - There are hundreds of drawing and paint programs available to create drawings, paintings, and to manipulate photos. Artists often use these programs to visualize ideas. But, since we can't directly dump our mental images onto a computer, we must apply a set of rules for using these programs effectively.
    Sketchcast is a good drawing/paint program for students. The program makes a movie of what you draw/say while you draw with the use of simple tools. (see figure 9.2)
    Visualizing Scientific Ideas with Technologies
    -The vastness of science makes it difficult to understand many scientific concepts. Since science requires understanding many dynamic visual relationships among things we can't see, visualization tools are vital:
    the "Spartan" program ( learners visualize molecules using 5 different representations.
    "eChem" was used by high school students to build molecular models and view multiple representations of molecules.
    the "Molecular Workbench" is a free tool offering experimentation and collaboration across a broad range of scientific fields and grades.
    Visualizing Mathematical Ideas with Technologies
    -Alike science, mathematics are governed by abstract concepts. Visualization is an important strategy to help learners understand mathematical concepts. Understanding equations in algebra, trigonometry, calculus and so on, is aided by seeing their plots
    "Mathematica" (, "Matlab" ( are programs available on the internet to help students visualize mathematical equations.
    Visualizing Formulas with Graphic Calculators
    -Students who use graphing calculators are more flexible problem solvers, and research indicates that graphing calculators have a positive influence on students understanding of mathematics.
    -The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recommends that mathematics instruction at all grades enables students to:
    1. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas
    2. Select, apply and translate among representations to solve problems
    3. Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and methematical phenomena
    -Graphic calculators are good tools for students to understand functional relationships, which they often have difficulty with. By easily moving between symbolic, graphical, and and numeric representations of two functions, they can discover the intracacies of the function, such as the x and y intercepts.
    Tinkering with Data Sets
    TinkerPlots, a data visualization software, enables students to see different patterns and clusters in statistical data. This is the process students undergo with TinkerPlots:
    -Ask a question that requires a prediction or inference
    -Collect data
    -Assign units to data
    -Represent data graphically in many ways
    -All of the data points on TinkerPlots allow students to group them in clusters, sequence and display in an a variety of formats. Students thus create their own problem, a subsequent data set, then organize their findings with TinkerPlots.
    -TinkerPlots can import Microsoft Excel spreadsheets to visualize data in more ways than those afforded by excel.
    Visualizing with video
    It’s generally agreed that kids spend too much time watching television, and while this is no doubt true, video can also be used as a powerful learning tool.
    The key: they need to be producers/ creators, rather than consumers.
    Working on videos spurs creativity, problem solving, and encourages cooperative team work.
    Video Cameras: Once prohibitively expensive and low quality, DV cameras are now technically polished and affordable. Many phones feature cameras, iPads have them, and higher-end DV cameras are also available.
    Features: Built in microphones, auto-focus, manual shuttering, high-definition video, etc.
    Another important tool that goes hand-in0hand with video cameras is video editing software. Programs like iMovie, and Windows Movie Maker are user friendly, bundled with most operating systems, and make it easy to create relatively polished videos- with effects such as black & white, slow motion, etc. Higher end programs like Final Cut Pro are also available- and are far more sophisticated.
    Activities: Digital Storytelling- technology is not the focus- merely a tool.
    Students will go through the various stages of production. In Pre-production, a script is made, where the premise is decided upon, and written out. Following this, students move on to production, where they perform the script or idea, while being filmed. Following that, they import the video/audio onto a computer, and use desktop editing software to mold the film. This is post-production. Throughout, the students should be asking themselves if the premise is clear, and if the intent of the video is being communicated efficiently.
    Finally, once the video is ready to be shown, it should be shown alongside the videos produced by their classmates. The students should be encouraged to “review” the other students’ work, thus each student will not only be a “creator” but also a critic.
    Video Modelling and Feedback
    Using video when teaching is ideal for students to get an exact model of what the teacher is looking for. It can be used for many different subjects. For example, it is perfect when teaching athletics to improve themselves physically. This can also be used for public speaking or theatre.
    Making a video in order to model what a student should do helps the students as it gives them a clearer direction of what is expected. Taking video of what students do best also helps them gain more self confidence as well. It is important to not only model actual performances, but the mental processes as well such as decision making, questioning, and resolving.
    Using video is a great tool for feeback when using video models followed by filming the students' performances.
    Learning through Video Feedback
    Watching oneself on video while receiving feedback helps learners reflect on their performances. Orban and McLean (1990) describe
    “Video is like a mirror in which a magician practices his tricks, a way to evaluate his performance over and over” (Taylor 1979, p. 28). It gives learners the chance to view themselves in an "unfiltered, unbiased" manner (228). Teachers do however need to prepare their students because at times it can be discouraging rather than motivating. This experience can be very powerful and shouldn't be used with troubled individuals without proper care.
    Visualizing Your Self with Video
    Since the experience can be an unpleasant one, it is important for teachers to take proper care of the situation so that learners do not become unmotivated. This tool can be extremely beneficial thanks to its power, however there is always a chance of it being a negative experience.

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  3. page 5. Communicating edited (Group Wiki Project, Annessa, Adam, Diana & Nancy) Howland, J. L., Jonassen, D., & Mar…

    (Group Wiki Project, Annessa, Adam, Diana & Nancy)
    Howland, J. L., Jonassen, D., & Marra, R. M. (2012), Meaningful learning with technology, fourth edition, Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Chapter 5
    Summary (pp. 91-130)
    Chapter 5 at a Glance:
    21st Century Media Kids (pp. 92-93)
    Students today are inundated with information and are comfortable with digital technologies. It is important that educators adapt their teaching strategies to include contemporary technologies in
    order to capture their students’ attention as well as teach them the most effective ways to use these tools.
    Discussion Boards and VoiceThread (pp. 93-102)
    Discussion Boards and VoiceThread are effective methods for online communications that allow students to reach beyond physical boarders. Despite their great potential and flexibility, they are not meant to replace face-to-face communication. See pp. 100-101 for suggestions of discussions that can be used on VoiceThread.
    Facilitating Online Learning (pp. 103-104)
    By providing detailed guidelines for students in terms of what is expected of them for online discussions, there is a greater opportunity for meaningful discussions thereby increasing the level of learning. See p. 103 for a detailed list of guidelines for online learning.
    Chats and Instant Messaging (pp. 104-106)
    Synchronous communication tools offer instant exchange of ideas in real-time that students find appealing. Because instant messaging is part of most students’ daily lives, it is a tool with which they feel comfortable. Its informal nature lends itself well to a completely different style of discussion. See p. 105 for safety guidelines for online communications.
    PowerPoint (pp. 106-108)
    Although presentations are a necessary skill for students to acquire, PowerPoint is often not used to its full potential. This section of Chapter 5 outlines how to better use PowerPoint to the students’ advantage and avoid common pitfalls. See p. 106-107 for details of features available on PowerPoint that can enhance students’ presentations.
    Social Presentation Software (pp. 108-109)
    Sharing documents, pdf files and PowerPoint are all possible through Web-based presentation software that makes collaborating on projects even easier. See p. 109 for an example of GoogleDocs.
    Interactive Whiteboards (pp.-111)
    This is another technology, like PowerPoint, that is all too often misused or not used to its full advantage. Interactive Whiteboards are commonly downgraded to nothing more than a traditional chalkboard. This section of Chapter 5 gives real-life testimony from elementary school teachers about how they used this technology more effectively. See p. 110 and p. 111 for visual examples of Interactive Whiteboards.
    Videoconferencing (pp. 111-118)
    Videoconferencing is a technology that can have many positive outcomes, from increasing student motivation to developing a greater understanding of certain subjects. However, some of the downsides of this tool are its cost, the difficulty of its accessibility and the necessity for proper teacher training. See p. 115 for ideas and examples of Videoconferencing.
    An advantage or benefit of using videoconferencing is that you may have the chance to speak to someone you may not normally have the chance to; for example, students may be able to connect with experts in certain fields that they are interested in. They may connect with experts such as geologists, astronomers, Supreme Judges, etc.
    Podcasting (pp. 118-125)
    A rapidly expanding and increasingly popular media, podcasting is a broadcasting tool that is similar to a blog in audio format. Video podcasting adds a visual element and increases its learning potential. This section of Chapter 5 goes into detail about how to implement podcasting into the curriculum. See p. 123 for an example of a student’s podcast.
    Discussion Questions
    “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn” (Textbook, p. 125). What did author Alvin Toffler mean by this statement and how can we as teachers use the communication technologies described in Chapter 5 to facilitate meaningful learning for our students?
    As the textbook explains, online communications are not meant to replace face-to-face communications but, instead, present opportunities for connecting with people. How can we avoid the dangerous pitfalls of online communications that could potentially harm social interactions and help nurture positive relationships online while still maintaining face-to-face communications?
    Despite the potential these technologies tend to offer theoretically, what are the realities of their application in terms of budget, accessibility to the regular education teacher, and the amount of time needed to learn how to use them?

    External links
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  4. page 4. Designing edited Designing with TechnologiesCh.4, pg. 72-90, from Meaningful Learning with Technology Learning Thr…
    Designing with TechnologiesCh.4, pg. 72-90, from Meaningful Learning with Technology
    Learning Through Design
    A ubiquitous activity that infiltrates all aspects of our lives
    People everywhere are engaged in some form of design
    Ex. Writing software programs, designing food products
    Complex types of problems
    Use other's designs and make their own
    Similar strategies as used in problem solving
    Problem Solving VS. Designing
    Problem Solving
    Identify the problem
    Identify a need or oportunity
    Find different solutions
    Produce design ideas
    Choose the best solution
    Plan and make a model or product
    Implement and assess your solution
    Evaluate and reflect on the design
    Vaguely defined problems
    Multiple solutions rather than a single right answer
    How a design problem is framed determines the solution created
    School design competitions are fundamental for meaningful learning
    Where do we face design challenges in courses?
    Technology education
    Computer programing
    Math and science classes
    Engineering and media courses
    Examples of Design Software: SketchUp, Scratch, iStopMotion, StageCast, GarageBand, and Musical SketchPad
    In essence designing is difficult because
    1) There is no one “right” way to design.
    2) There is no one right way to problem solve.
    Designing motivates students to build understanding of concepts in memorable contexts = meaningful learning.
    Drawing Designs with SketchUp
    Graphic literacy = The ability to convert ideas unto usable graphics
    Visualization of designs = Virtually build, then examine and reconstruct a project
    Problem: Many students are not "graphically literate".
    Solution: Computer-Aided Design (CAD) program offers visualization of designs.
    Google’s SketchUp = 3D modelling program; allows students to design and share 3D creations.
    Increases graphic literacy
    Applied in many fields including architecture, mechanic, video-game, and film design
    Originally developed for architects to design buildings through visualization
    Now, helps students see and understand mathematical concepts (ex. Angles, volume)
    Testing Designs & Building Understanding with Simulation Software
    Helps students explore questions
    Helps students engage in big ideas related to science and engineering
    Supports students' thinking and early design planning
    Operates by running complex mathematical calculations in the background of the software, which generates a user-friendly view of some real world rule-driven behaviour
    Bridges abstract theories and laws of nature with the real world, making them more understandable, learnable and transferable
    Provide designers with fast feedback and reveal potential problems
    Trebuchet Simulator
    Trebuchet = A gravity-powered catapult
    Iterative design = Methodology that allows one to build and test prototypes, diagnose and remedy problems, and implement improvements
    Design pedagogy
    Can run a virtual design without spending time building a prototype
    Can run virtual experiments until they have found the exact measurements
    Encourages informed design decisions based on evidence
    Afterward, can build the physical prototype with greater confidence and in less time
    Problem Solving through the Design of Games and Animations
    Logo and BASIC = Input information into the computer and receive immediate feedback on whether their activity works
    Develops problem solving skills by generating hypotheses and new rules, as pertains to the learning objective of 21st Century Skills and NETS
    LOGO-inspired products = microworlds, construction kids
    More recent products = Scratch and iStopMotion and Stagecast Creator
    LOGO-based program
    Uses various software to create a final product
    Projects can be shared in an online school community
    Aimed at preteens and teens
    Tasks include manipulating images, adding audio tracks and music, inputting videos
    Uses “virtual programming blocks that users can insert, move and combine, and set values to variables through drop down menus” (Howland, et Al. 2012.p.81)
    Free for students and educators
    Software aimed at elementary level
    Creates animated videos with a voice recording
    Equipment needed = Mac computers, digital cameras, or webcams
    Good for any stop-animation videos such as claymation
    Stagecast Creator
    Similarly to iStopMotion, creates animated videos without programming language
    Compatible with Mac, Windows, and Unix systems
    Software aimed at students from K-12
    Creates games and simulations
    "Programming buddy" = Scaffolds the students' experience in programming
    Familiarizes with programming techniques
    Are there advantages, other than learning about programming, to your students using AgentSheets?
    How would you implement a software like this in your class room?
    Above is the classic game "Frogger" recreated using AgentSheets; click the picture to play! What will you create?
    Designing Music with Composition Software
    Created by Apple
    Allows the average user to develop musical creations
    Can use "Smart Instruments" that auto-play selected notes in an appealing melody
    Tailored for student use
    Utilizes "blocks of music" to compose music graphically
    Software gives immediate feedback
    Authentic learning experience
    Understand how melodies fit together
    Check out Impromptu HERE
    Musical SketchPad
    Aimed at elementary level
    Includes a music line-drawing tool that allows children to easily create musical patterns, where each line of notes is attributed to a different instrument
    Try it out HERE
    Studies show that students who learn how to play an instrument have a higher level of cognitive development, which leads to meaningful learning.
    With that in mind, can the use of music composition software complement or replace learning how to play an instrument in terms of its effects on cognitive development?
    Is it meaningful to start with "blocks of music" instead of musical notes?
    SketchPad is highly accessible due to its simplistic interface. However, could using the "blocks of music" approach in this software make the interface even more friendly for young children?
    Pictured above, GarageBand allows users to play virtual instruments on the iPad and edit their music on the spot.
    Improving Design Compass: Keeping Track of What Designers Do
    Design Compass
    Make a log of strategies to use when designing
    Recorder = The person who clicks off every step as it is completed
    Design compass = Tracks the amount of time spent on each design step
    Teacher and student can leave notes and track everything accomplished by the design team
    To learn more about design compass, visit the site:
    Technology ...
    Helps students explore and develop better understanding of scientific, mathematical, musical, and computer-based concepts
    Develops intrinsic motivation
    Guides students in exploring with different abstract ideas
    Infiltrates many parts of our lives
    Should be treated as a key concept in learning
    Becoming a much needed skill within our society
    Use SketchUp and simulation softwares for complex concepts such as in science
    Visually design a 3D model to enhance learning experiences
    Develop problem solving skills by designing games and animations on Scratch
    Develop creativity and imagination
    {creative.png} {32-Fabulous-iOS-App-Icon-Designs.jpg}

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  5. page 3. Experimenting edited Chapter 3-Experimenting with Technologies {kids-on-a-computer.jpg} Chapter Objectives Describ…
    Chapter 3-Experimenting with Technologies
    Chapter Objectives
    Describe how micro-worlds support hypothesis generation
    Show how technology simulations can support experimentation
    Predict the effects of gaming on student performance
    Describe how multi-user virtual environments can enhance learning
    Describe how experimenting with different technologies support the development on NETS and 21st Century Skills
    Part 1-Learning to Reason Causally
    This Chapter describes how students can use technologies to conduct experiments. Experimentation is a form of investigation or examination of factors in order to test hypotheses.
    Exploration involves:
    What do all of these activities have in common?
    All require that students reason causally
    Means that they must apply their understandings of cause and effect relationships
    Causal reasoning supports TWO primary kinds of thinking by students:
    1) Prediction
    2) Inferencing
    Reasoning from a set of conditions, the possible effects that may result from a change in those conditions. Predicting the effects of some changes in a set of conditions is the essence of scientific experimentation. Forecasting an event and testing hypotheses to confirm or refute scientific assumptions are the two primary functions of prediction (A + B = C).
    Example: A psychologist may predict that changes in environmental conditions, stress for example, will affect a person's behaviour.
    Reasoning backward from effect to cause requires the process of inference. A primary function of inference is diagnosis (C = B + A).
    Example: A doctor knows their patient is depressed. In her assessment, she found out her patients husband recently died. Now the doctor can infer that her patient's husband's death is the cause of depression.
    Part 2-Hypothesizing with Microworlds
    A term coined by Seymour Papert meaning explorational learning environments that used Logo Turtles to learn the principles of geometry. Microworlds are deeply interesting to learners because they are created by other learners, and have proven to be a very effective means in encouraging students to use higher order thinking, such as speculating and hypothesis testing.
    How the microworld works: The microworld provides a single representation of some phenomena and gives the student immediate feedback when they try something out (i.e. manipulate or control an object). The learner will make a prediction as to how they think some objects in their microworld will behave, and then manipulate some of these objects. They then make observations regarding on how these objects actually behave and receive feedback from the microworld application. Based on the feedback they can then revise their conceptual mode of the domain.
    Logo: A simple computer programming language that allows users to use simple commands to instruct their "Logo Turtles" to do various things. This is an ideal means for creating a microworld. Although Logos involve simple commands, they can still take months of practice to develop the programming skills necessary to create microworlds.
    This presents a problem the following problem: Many teachers are not comfortable with teaching such skills.
    Microworlds are content specific, and thus are useful in allowing students to gain a deeper understanding of a particular subject. For example, Interactive Physics is a microworld that teaches students the principles of physics and SimCalc allows students to begin exploring the principles of basic calculus.
    Ex: Interactive Physics:
    Interactive Physics is a site that offers a selection of microworlds that students can use to explore the realms of momentum, acceleration, and other topics related to physics. Interactive Physics, and other microworld based learning systems are in keeping with the current science-curriculum standards which follow an inquiry based science teaching paradigm.
    Part 3-Experimenting with Simulations
    Imitations of some real things, state of affairs or process. They imitate the phenomena by allowing learners to manipulate key characteristics or variables within a physical or abstract system.
    For example: computers are frequently used to build simulations of real-life situations.
    Mircoworlds va. Simulations:
    Mircoworlds are a form of simulation that address a fairly specific phenomenon, often providing learners with the ability to represent their own models, though not always. Simulations can be a applied to a broader set of systems.
    Where can they appear?
    The Internet: a single search of the web can provide hundreds of commercially available educational simulations
    Some examples include:
    Medical Simulations: these support the teaching and training of medical students (ex: a simulation of an operation).
    Flight Simulations: flight simulations are a very important part of pilot training. Pilots can sit in simulated cockpits that physically move based on flight commands which present complex/dramatic situations pilots may be subject to in the field, thus preparing them for real flight.
    Trucking Industry and Military Simulations
    Laboratory Simulations
    These simulations are most commonly available as education simulators and are used in chemistry and physics labs. NASA's Classroom of the Future's most recent innovation is titled CyberSurgeons. CyberSurgeons allows high school students to apply science knowledge and skills related to human body systems and the disease process. This simulation is successful in allowing students to apply what they are learning, so they can understand it better. To learn more about the simulation visit:
    Urban Simulations
    Urban Simulations are a popular and effective kind of educational simulator. CIty simulators were developed for urban planners to understand how cities are likely to evolve in response to various policy decisions. SimCity, a popular computer game, was the first among urban simulations and is now available in different versions. In SimCity students can create Sims (virtual people), homes, build communities and engage each character by giving them commands. Sims can experience city life, travel outside the community and get stuck in traffic etc... This simulator allows its user to experiment with social, economic, political and cultural issues within their own virtual realm/SimCity.
    Simulation Builders
    These can involve complex processes and are not recommended for everyone. There are, however, some systems available to help you develop simulations:
    University of Twente in the Netherlands created SimQuest. SimQuest was then used to build a sewage plant simulator. Students used the simulator to understand how biological processes work.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed software for constructing Augmented Reality simulations with handheld devices. These simulations help students understand scientific concepts and principles in ecology, environmental science, geological sciences, health sciences, history, etc... by embedding them in lifelike situations.
    Part 4-Venturing into Games
    This section will tackle how different types of computer games can be used in classrooms.
    Quiz games are some of the oldest computer-based games and usually only require memorization performance, although higher-order questions can also be included by teachers.
    An example of this is
    As you can see, the format resembles Jeopardy!, allowing players to pick topics and answer questions while competing against each other
    More complex games, such as Sid Meier’s students to solve complex problems
    while maintaining their civilization:
    {Screen Shot 2012-11-27 at 6.52.33 PM.png}
    In the game, students can map the world using satellite images, form armies to attack other civilizations, and choose which form of government they will use (ex. Facism, Feudalism, Tribal Council, Imperialism)
    They can also use a complex trade system to manage resources, trade routes, and the spread of technology
    Games such as civilization are appropriate for social studies classes, where students are meant to understand political, military, social, cultural, and historical complexities
    Principles that underlie modern game design (Gee, 2003):
    Active, Critical Learning Principle: All aspects of the learning environment are set up to encourage active and critical learning.
    Committed Learning Principle: Learners participate in of their real-world identities in relation to a virtual identity.
    Identity Principle: Learning involves taking on and playing with identities in such a way that the learner has real choices (in developing the virtual identity) and ample opportunities to meditate on the relationship between new identities and old ones.
    Practice Principle: Learners get lots and lots of practice in a context where the practice is not boring.
    Probing Principle: Learners are able to “probe the world, ”reflect in and on this action and, on this basis, form a hypothesis.
    Situated Meaning Principle: The meanings of signs are situated in embodied experience. Meanings are not abstract or out of context.
    Multimodal Principle: Meaning and knowledge are built up in various ways (images, texts, symbols, interactions, abstract design, sound, etc.), not just words.
    Discovery Principle: Overt telling is kept to a well-thought-out minimum, allowing ample opportunity for the learner to experiment and make discoveries.
    Part 5-Immersing into Virtual Worlds
    A virtual world is a realistic, three dimensional simulation in which users identify with an avatar while interacting with others online
    Can be used in the classroom
    - ex: Entropia Universe: economic virtual world
    - Currency is traded and one can purchase virtual land see here for more
    Quest Atlantis- best multiuser virtual environment, ages 9-16
    - combines commercial games with research based educational practice
    - students use avatars to move through three different worlds while collaborating with other avatars to complete quests
    - completing these "quests" engages students in social and educational activities ( ex. field studies, interviews, examining current events, etc)
    - this game is suggested to aid learning in sciences and social studies while gaining stronger sense of academic self-efficacy
    Other examples of Virtual Worlds:
    Sparktop - Kids with learning disabilities come here and find an accepting, low stress environment to hang out, be creative, find their talents, information on possible struggles, and just relax and have fun. This virtual work was created by the Charles Schwab Foundation and is dedicated to helping children with disabilities.
    Woogi World - elementary school students come here to a safe engaging virtual school and learn age-appropriate core educational content, essential skills for today, cyber safety and, and responsible ethical behaviour in order to succeed as the leaders of tomorrow. This program was created by Tom Fulp.
    Whyville – 8-14 year olds come here to learn by exploring and communicating on topics like math, physics, art history, economics, civics, and more. Whyville is a virtual city with its own newspaper, Senators, beach, museum, City Hall, town square and economy. This virtual simulation is based on games and role play.
    Second Life – used now by hundreds of Universities to conduct classes in, have virtual exchanges with other schools, go out into virtual flea markets to the learn the value of money…This program was developed by Linden Lab and launched in 2003
    Some problems with virtual worlds:
    Identity – Users create new identities and are therefore anonymous to each other and the teacher. This can lead to misbehaving when interacting with others
    New communication patterns – It is harder for students to know who they are interacting with and for the teacher to evaluate student contributions properly
    New pedagogic roles – Teaching in a virtual world can influence the power relationship between student and teacher, making it difficult to know how much to intervene
    Must reason causally because it’s one of the most basic thinking skills tied to most science inquiry standards
    Causal reasoning is engaged by the number of technology-based learning environments
    Microworlds provide a simplified representation of a world that learners can manipulate and test
    Simulations more complex than microworlds often provide multiple variables that the students are able to manipulate
    Games add competition with one’s self or with others
    Virtual worlds combine characteristics of the three learning environments above into educationally driven environments that allow students to explore distant worlds and pursue learning quests

    Chapter Links:
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  6. page 2. Inquiring edited Chapter 2: Inquiring with Technologies Introduction Welcome to chapter 2, this chapter explore…

    Chapter 2: Inquiring with Technologies
    Welcome to chapter 2, this chapter explores the idea of students using technologies to further investigate and inquire information that they are possibly searching. With technology students have the ability to explore way beyond just simple text files, the internet offers wide variety of different tools such as; videos, audio, graphics, and online simulations just to name a few.
    The internet offers the students a way to quickly gather information and share with other individuals from around the world with just a click of a button. Especially nowadays technology is everywhere such as cellphones and portable computers that offer people to virtually connect anywhere in the world.
    Information gathering with internet resources
    Although online searches are useful as a first step to a project, it is not where a project should end. Online searches provide students with data and it is important that they use this data in order to make meanings or solve problems.
    Searching for Information:
    It can be very difficult for students to find the information they are looking for because of the vast amount of of web pages that are available in the cyber world. This is why it is essential that before a student begins their quest for information, they know EXACTLY what it is they are searching for and why. It is important that after the motive is decided upon, the student comes up with a search strategy to make sure the information they retrieve is relevant. Therefore, it is important that the teacher talks to the students about online searches. Once they fumble upon information, it is important that they connect it to their prior knowledge so they understand, think and learn.
    Invisible Web:
    Invisible websites and ones that are not found just anywhere. They are not as 'popular' as websites such as Google.
    Information in these databases tend to be of a better quality and are are found more efficiently than those of the General web page.
    Individualizing and Organizing Searches:
    Google has become the most popular search engine, it even has specialized search engines such as "Google Scholars" where books, these, and peer reviewed works may be found. There is even an option where you can personalize your google so that your results show the information most relevant to you because Google keeps track of your previous searches and most visited websites.
    It is also possible to bookmark certain websites for easier access in the future, if you know that it will be frequently visited.
    Recommended Websites from the Reading
    2012 links
    2015 updated links

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  7. page 2. Inquiring edited Chapter 2: Inquiring with Technologies {Capture111.PNG} Outline & Questions Chapter Obje…

    Chapter 2: Inquiring with Technologies
    Outline & Questions
    Chapter Objectives :
    Technology Trends Supporting Inquiry
    Technology is always changing and becoming better, easier
    to use, more accessible and faster. Teachers need to be flexible with allchapter 2, this chapter explores the overloadidea of technology being introduced to students in orderusing technologies to use it to the students’ advantage.
    Technology is becoming more portable to everyone, thus
    further investigate and inquire information that they are possibly searching. With technology students have
    ability to be more creative and use it forexplore way beyond just simple text files, the internet offers wide variety of different purposes. Yet rulestools such as; videos, audio, graphics, and “bans” needonline simulations just to change in schools in order to work to its full potential.
    Question 1: Describe how
    name a few.
    The internet offers
    the term "flexible" is meant in this part of the text.
    Question 2: Based on the text, should
    students be alloweda way to use cell phonesquickly gather information and tablets freely during class or school hours? Why or why not?
    Information Gathering
    share with Internet Resources
    Researching is not
    other individuals from around the world with just a formclick of learning because it is mostly subconscious. A student will search a term only because they need to in order to do an assignment, rather than really learning how to research. They are too focused on what they are researching rather than how.
    Students become easily distracted with all the information available so they end up moving away from the information they need rather than moving towards finding it.
    Critical thinking and finding ways to build on previous knowledge should be the outcome of research. Guidance and lessons from teachers are necessary to have students learn.
    Question 3: What
    button. Especially nowadays technology is I-Search?
    Search Engines and Directories
    Search engines
    everywhere such as Googlecellphones and Yahoo! are usedportable computers that offer people to search forvirtually connect anywhere in depth information. The information given is usually giventhe world.
    Information gathering
    with everything there is to know about the desired topic. Directoriesinternet resources
    Although online searches
    are more specific and have reviews from other people and users.
    Question 4: How is Wonder Wheel used?
    Question 5: What is the difference between
    useful as a search andfirst step to a directory?
    Invisible Web
    Searchable portals that are
    project, it is not clearly available on search engines yet can be accessed if you paywhere a fee or subscribe. Information in these portalsproject should end. Online searches provide students with data and it is more specific and of better quality.
    Question 6: Name 3 strategies you can
    important that they use this data in order to access the invisible web.
    * Click here, to learn more about Google Wonder Wheel
    Feeds are a useful tool as they allow
    make meanings or solve problems.
    for content such as web browser or an application toInformation:
    It can
    be delivered onto to your desktop.
    Feeds are summaries of content from the web that are updated to a user on a regular basis. In order to receive feeds onto your desktop, one must subscribe to an aggregator or a feed reader. Good news, it is easy to find inexpensive and even sometimes free feed readers. Also, there are easy and simple to use.
    Question 7: What are feeds served
    very difficult for and what are they’re advantages?
    Individualizing, Organizing, and Sharing Searches
    There are various techniques in organizing and individualizing web searches to make it easy to retrieve them later one. Also, there are many sites that offer personalized and advanced search settings which make it all that much easier
    students to find exactly what youthe information they are looking for.
    Creating bookmarks comes in handy. Whenever you find something interesting you can easily bookmark it so that you can easily retrieve it at a later time. There are even social networking bookmark sites that facilitate in ranking, classifying and even sharing bookmarks with others.
    Question 8: What are some
    for because of the waysvast amount of individualizing, organizing and sharing searches mentioned in the chapter?
    Question 9: What techniques do you use to keep you sites organized?
    Evaluating the source, accuracy and the veracity
    of the content on the internet is essentialweb pages that are available in order to perform useful and effective searches. One has to keep in mind that anybody can put up information on the internet as one does not need a permit to do so. Thus, as a result there is a lot of perjury, propaganda and pornography on the internet server whichcyber world. This is why it is vital to be able to detect what is fact and what is fiction.
    When viewing a site you must first evaluate its content by looking at credibility and relevancy. Learners should ask themselves various questions when evaluating a website. This allows one to reflect on what is missing and what is needed on the site.
    Question 10: What are the two most important factors to take in to accountability when evaluating a website?
    Question 11: List some questions
    essential that would help you to complete the evaluation process on the contents ofbefore a website.
    Things to Consider: Copyright, Fair Use and Plagiarism
    The internet has become a place where “traditional copyright laws have become limiting” as media is mashed up, mixed and edited, (p.33, Jonassen, 2012). Now creators of sites may choose not to have copyright protection and share
    student begins their content in the public domain where no rights are reserved. Learners must be aware of copyright, fair use and plagiarism and how to go about avoiding such acts.
    Question 12: In your words, give a brief description of each of the following: copyright, fair use and plagiarism.
    Question 13: How would you go about making your students aware of these things to consider?
    Access versus Safety
    Schools have employed soft wares that can block websites by filtering out certain words or phrases.
    However, some words can be questionable, like searching “breast”
    quest for breast cancer; this can lead to valid websites on charities, research, and information on breast cancer orinformation, they know EXACTLY what it can lead graphic websites.
    Why block websites then? Well there
    is they are two schools of thought, one: protecting students from graphic and harmful websites, two: teaching students how to search efficiently and how to react when one does come across inappropriate material; Vicki Davis recommended 5 stepssearching for online websites:
    1. Stop what you are doing. Don’t keep clicking.
    2. Screenshot. Take a screenshot. Save a copy
    and print a copy.
    3. Block. Anyone offensive should be blocked and removed as a friend if he or she
    why. It is on
    your friends list.
    4. Tell. Tell your teacher or network administrator (or your parents if you are at home)
    important that after the situation and give them a copy ofmotive is decided upon, the screenshot. When you have a problem,
    do not stop speaking out until you find someone who can help you.
    5. Share. After talking
    student comes up with your parents and/or teacher, if the incident is appropriate
    to discuss, share it with others to promote Internet safety.
    Question 14: Do you feel comfortable using
    a softwaresearch strategy to block and filter websites ?
    Over time, your digital footprint adds up and can provide a detailed account of your identity, shopping, and preferences. The U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team’s (US-CERT) warns online users to limit
    make sure the personal information they give and to look for sitesretrieve is relevant. Therefore, it is important that are protected, like sites that use SSL to encrypt information.
    the US-CERT website at
    Using Information
    teacher talks to Build Knowledge with Open-Ended, Student-Directed Research Projects
    Students are encouraged to research their topic and gather as much as information as they can: open ended; instead of using
    the internet to answer a set of questions. This way, students can organize their information and research results to useful and non-useful information.
    Good teachers use technology as a tool to assist students develops their own set of questions from their research. Online research
    about online searches. Once they fumble upon information, it is worthless, unless students can turnimportant that they connect it into a meaningful activity.
    Focusing Searches Using WebQuests and Student-Created
    WebQuest that are well designed, have multiple perspectives, analysis, and synthesis of information.
    Meaningful learning occurs when the WebQuest is open-ended and student directed. More effective is a student created WebQuest. First students need
    to evaluate old WebQuest and analyze the format, to do this, students should use the GAP model (Caverly, 2000, in Peterson &Koeck, 2001):
    ■ Gathering information
    ■ Arranging information into meaningful formats
    ■ Using technology tools to present that new
    their prior knowledge to others.
    Question 15: Do you
    so they understand, think you would incorporate WebQuests in you class, if so would you hate students create their own?
    * For more information on WebQuest, click here.
    Scientific Inquiry
    and Experimentation
    Flash animation offers an engaging
    Invisible Web:
    Invisible websites
    and interactive learning experience for students. The Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE; is a free online science learning environment that offers grades 5 to 12 a place to generate ideas and address students’ interest.
    This website offers an authentic experience by offering students an opportunity to examine evidence from the real world and scientific controversies.
    ting Data with Mobile Technologies / Cell Phones, iDevices, and, and PDAs
    Today’s generation is a “digital generation” meaning that the individuals’ living in today’s society have only lived in a world where there is an enormous amount of mobile technology. Some of the mobile devices
    ones that are being usednot found just anywhere. They are iPods, digital cameras, and cell phones.
    Cell phones are being used
    not as learning tools in many countries such'popular' as Europe, China, Japan, and the Philippines. Prensky believes that cell phones have many usageswebsites such as voice, text messaging, graphics, cameras, and video recording. He also thinks that can be used to guide tours, support learning through the use of accessing animations and language or vocabulary training.
    Question 16: How can using cell phones be beneficial while doing fieldwork?
    Question 17: What are some of the problems that can be associated with using cell phones as a tool for learning?
    * To see a video on the shifting change of technology, click here.
    Sensor Technology
    “A sensor is a device that receives input to which it responds by converting the data to an electrical or optical signal that is recorded
    in digital or analog format”.
    Probeware is a term that describes tools and software, which are used
    these databases tend to gather and assess data and from there can be combined with laptops or graphing calculators for interactive learning. Probeware can allow students to view real-time data visually though graphs, meters, tables or graphs.
    A GPS is a satellite-based navigation system, which is comprised
    of a network of 24 satellites. GPS units can be used to show your location on a mapbetter quality and trace your path as you walk or change locations.
    Question 18: What other ways can Probeware be used and what
    are someare found more efficiently than those of the benefits of usingGeneral web page.
    Individualizing and Organizing Searches:
    Google has become the most popular search engine,
    it foreven has specialized search engines such tasks?
    Question 19: How can GPS be utilized in the classroom environment?
    Water Analysis/ NatureMapping
    as "Google Scholars" where books, these, and probes canpeer reviewed works may be used to evaluate water quality. Itfound. There is usually easy to find a body of water to sample, and studentseven an option where you can bring these samples back to the class to analyze.
    The NatureMapping Program combines GIS use with data collection in authentic work
    personalize your google so that connects schools with experts as well as communities.
    Question 20: Come up with an example of NatureMapping or reference
    your results show the textbookinformation most relevant to find an example.
    Finding Opinions with Online Survey Tools
    Online survey tools allow opportunities for collecting data across the curriculum.
    There are both free survey sites and ones that can be paid for; the sites that cost money contain some features that the free sites do not have.
    Free survey sites usually limit the number
    you because Google keeps track of questions, responses, and/or participants that are allowed. The sites that individuals pay for are more likely to allow unlimited surveys, customizing options,your previous searches and data analysis tools that filter resultsmost visited websites.
    It is also possible
    to help users find patternsbookmark certain websites for easier access in the data.
    The following are suggestions for writing surveys: 1. Use simple language, 2. Include only one concept per question, 3. Avoid biased or leading questions, 4. Avoid confusing questions where respondents are unclear as to what is being asked, 5. Avoid double-barreled questions
    future, if you know that contain more than one question where respondents may agree with one but notit will be frequently visited.
    Recommended Websites from
    the other.
    Howland, J. L., Jonassen, D., & Marra, R. M. (2012), Meaningful learning with technology, fourth edition, Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon
    Aarti Patel, Sarah Colman, Daniela Fracasso, and Jaclyn Ben-ezra

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  8. page 0. Preface edited ... Constructivism entails creating meanings for our own experiences. Teachers must recognize tha…
    Constructivism entails creating meanings for our own experiences.
    Teachers must recognize that students interpret information and knowledge in their own ways.
    New In This Edition:
    Chapter objectives at the beginning of each chapter.
    Rubrics for assessing characteristics of meaningful learning in the appendix.
    Focus on social educational networking and web 2.0 tools for learning and collaboration.
    More information on literacy skills.
    Emphasis on practical applications that teachers are currently using in classroom.
    Technology and Meaningful Learning
    While technology can be used as a means of acquiring additional practice, it can also serve as a way to engage student and allow them to gain more meaning from what they are learning.
    To be able to use technology to gain meaningful learning would require rethinking the education process.
    Technology may not be the cause of meaningful learning but it can aid students in acquiring it.
    Teachers and Technology In the Classroom
    If students are to use technology as a learning tool, teachers then will have to also learn how to use technology.
    Previously, teachers did all the thinking for students.
    They taught what they knew and their students simply took notes on what their teacher told them.
    This is not so when employing technology in the classroom. Using technology as an educational tool requires students to construct their own meaning.
    In order to ensure that students become constructive learners, teachers can no longer determine how students will learn things.
    Students should not be understanding the world from their teacher's point of view; they should be constructing their own while their teacher aids them in doing so.
    Teachers must also learn to diminish their level of authority over their management of learning in the classroom.
    It is important for students to determine for themselves what they should learn and how they should learn it.
    Teachers must learn how to use technology in order to coach their students.
    Students are capable of mastering the use of technology without a teacher telling them how to do it; thus, teachers need not be experts to help their students.

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